Hello and thank you for using our technology. Sometimes customers ask how they can compare the performance of a Neo4j installation they have to Neo4j Aura. Sometimes this installation was quickly spun up in the cloud to compare; other times, they have an existing environment.
Unfortunately, it's incredibly difficult to compare apples to apples in these situations. The Neo4j Aura infrastructure includes layers for security, self-healing, and redundancy (clustering) and is running in various cloud providers with various sizes and specifications depending on technologies utilized.
First, a good place to start for an understanding of the Neo4j Aura architecture, is the free Neo4j Security Whitepaper. It has much more information than just security, and is a great source of information. Second, we touch on this topic in the article https://aura.support.neo4j.com/hc/en-us/articles/360038730513 so it is worth reading some of the information in that article.
In the end, it's just not feasible to create an environment replicating Aura exactly for a given comparison, and so running some performance tests within Aura may be useful during and/or after a migration to Aura. We have many articles on performance tuning.